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Wireless communication in IoT systems using Arduino MKR modules
One of the biggest problems currently facing the Internet of Things (IoT) devices market is its high fragmentation. The multitude of devices and communication protocols makes it very difficult to build a uniform and functional system if you decide to use components from different manufacturers.

There are many reasons for this, and they are not always solely related to the designers' desire to push through their own licensed solutions. The term IoT covers many types of devices. These could be, for example, small measurement sensors powered by alternative energy sources and requiring small amounts of data exchange over long distances, but also remote cameras transmitting high-resolution images in real time. Thus, the specificity of the designed device forces the designers to select the appropriate wireless communication technology, adequate to the requirements of the designed device. You must consider, among other things, battery life, communication range or amount of data transferred. Responding to the needs of the market, manufacturers of development kits (inclusing the Arduino platform) made sure that their portfolio covers the needs of IoT device designers to the fullest extent possible. In this article we present a brief overview of selected Arduino development kits from the MKR family, prepared for rapid prototyping of IoT devices using wireless communication in standards such as WiFi/Bluetooth, LoRaWAN/Sigfox, GSM/3G, or NB-IoT.

WiFi/Bluetooth communication with Arduino MKR 1000/1010

Communication in the ISM 2.4 GHz band, using WiFi and Bluetooth standards, has been on the IoT device market for several years. For the rapid implementation of hardware and software prototypes using WiFi communication, Arduino has developed the Arduino MKR WiFi 1000 and MKR WiFi 1010 development kits. The former is based on the ATSAMW25 module, containing the SAMD21 microcontroller, WINC1500 radio path and the ECC508 authentication chip. The MKR 1010 kit is fitted with the NINA-W102 radio module from u-blox, which offers Bluetooth/BLE communication.

Figures 1 and 2. Arduino modules MKR WAN 1000 (left) and MKR WAN 1010 (right).

On the software side, Arduino provides the WiFi101 library, supporting WEP and WPA2 Personal encryption, for the MKR WiFi 1000 modules. For the MKR WiFi 1010 module (and other kits based on the u-blox NINA-W102 module, including Arduino NANO 33 IoT) the manufacturer has prepared the WiFiNINA library, as well as a number of sample applications demonstrating integration with Android IoT Cloud and Azure, AWS IoT Core, Google Firebase, or Blynk.

LoRaWAN and Sigfox communication - Arduino MKR WAN 13x0 and FOX 1200 modules

The rapid development of IoT systems has resulted in an increased interest in the subject of smart cities. Unfortunately, WiFi/Bluetooth/BLE standards are used over short distances and does not meet all the requirements set for "Smart City" projects (which include, among others, extensive networks of pollution sensors, water level monitoring sensors, or parking lot sensors). The solution to these problems may be the use of one of the two most popular communication standards in the LPWAN (Low Power Wide Area Network) area - LoRaWAN or Sigfox, which enable small amounts of data to be transmitted over long distances. For the rapid prototyping of devices using LoRa/LoRaWAN, communication, Arduino designers have prepared MKR WAN 1300 development kit, and its successor MKR WAN 1310. Both modules are based on the Atmel SAMD21 microcontroller, used in other Arduino MKR series modules, and the Murata CMWX1ZZABZ radio module. The newer version of the module is additionally equipped with 2MB of Flash memory, a new battery charging circuit and low-power optimised power supply circuits.

Figures 3 and 4. Arduino MKR WAN 1300 (left) and MKR WAN 1310 (right).

MKR WAN 13x0 modules work with the Arduino IoT Cloud provided by the manufacturer. The complexity of the solutions provided is complemented by the Arduino Pro Gateway LoRa Connectivity optimised for MKR WAN 1310 modules.

An interesting alternative to LoRa/LoRaWAN is the Sigfox standard, which places particular emphasis on communication from nodes to the access gateway. The Arduino MKR FOX 1200 module, based on the Atmel SAMD21 microcontroller, was made available to designers. The Microchip Smart RF ATA8520, tuned to ISM 868 MHz band assigned for Europe, is responsible for radio communication.

Figure 5. The Arduino MKR FOX 1200 module for communication in Sigfox networks.

GSM/3G communication - Arduino MKR GSM 1400 module

Even an extended mesh network operating in the LoRa/LoRaWAN technologies is currently unable to provide global coverage. In the case of IoT projects requiring almost unlimited communication range, the best solution is to use the GSM/3G standard. Arduino has prepared the MKR GSM 1400 module for GSM/3G communication featuring a SARA-U210 modem from u-blox and a secure authentication module Microchip ECC508 for the implementation of communication security mechanisms. The built-in GSM modem operates in the following frequency bands: GSM 850 MHz, E-GSM 1900 MHz, DCS 1800 MHz, and PCS 1900 MHz.

To improve the process of software development, the manufacturer provides the MKRGSM library (relieving the programmer from operating the module using low-level AT commands), together with a rich set of examples (including GPRS communications, receiving/sending text messages, handling voice calls). The MKR GSM 1400 module can work with both Arduino IoT Cloud software and alternative cloud solutions: Google IoT Cloud, Blynk, or SORACOM Air IoT, for which the manufacturer has prepared a set of example implementations.

Figure 6. Arduino MKR GSM 1400 module for GSM/3G communication.

Narrowband IoT communication - Arduino MKR NB 1500 module:

When briefly characterising selected communication standards for Internet of Things devices, it is impossible to ignore solutions based on the Narrowband IoT (NB-IoT) standard, which use the licensed LTE 800 MHz band for communication. Similarly to LoRaWAN and Sigfox solutions, NB-IoT belongs to LPWAN networks, thus ensuring stable communication over large areas with the use of energy-saving radio modules that ensure many years of battery operation. Thus, it provides another alternative to LoRaWAN and Sigfox communication in "Smart City" solutions

For rapid prototyping of NB-IoT end nodes, Arduino has prepared the MKR NB 1500 kit, equipped with the u-blox SARA-R410M-02B module, enabling LTE Cat M1/ NB1 connectivity in the following frequency bands 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 12, 13, 18, 19, 20, 25, 26, and 28. In addition, the MKR NB 1500 kit is equipped with ECC508 Microchip's authentication chip, a Micro SIM card connector, Li-Po battery charge controller and an external antenna connector.

Figure 7. Arduino MKR NB 15 module for narrowband IoT network communication.

Embedded systems and IoT

2021061401 / 09.09.2021 / Embedded / Transfer Multisort Elektronik Sp. z o.o. /

BRUSHLESS MOTORS – DESIGN & OPERATION
In order to understand the phenomenon of brushless motors, which are rapidly entering the power tool market, it is necessary to understand the principle of operation of the formerly applied commutator motors and learn about the main differences between these two types of motors.

E2E NEXT SERIES OF INDUCTIVE SENSORS FROM OMRON
Inductive sensors are an extraordinarily important group of control system components that is present in every automated industrial plant, but also more and more commonly in households. Thanks to their simple design and a wide array of sizes they guarantee very long and failure-free work, and the ever newer solutions allow you to choose the right sensor for every application.

DYMO RHINO 4200 LABEL MAKER
DYMO is a company with 60 years of experience in manufacturing embossing label markers and printers. The supplier offers the highest quality equipment that makes the work in workplaces, offices, factories, warehouses, workshops, retail outlets, and many other industries simpler. They are alsogreat for households, as they are great for organizing and managing assets.

HAN S CONNECTORS FOR ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS AND NEW PRODUCTS FROM HARTING
The HARTING brand is known in global markets as a manufacturer of excellent quality connectors, cables and other solutions for industry, as well as professional and specialist equipment. Much of the company's product range is available directly from TME's warehouses, to the satisfaction of our customers.

THE 40 SERIES OF COMELUX SWITCHES
Illuminated rocker switches are used in many different areas – from industrial applications to consumer equipment (such as home appliances). Mounted on a panel, these switches are a safe way of turning high voltage circuits on. In the case of COMELUX products, they can handle currents up to 16A and standard mains voltages, i.e. 250V AC. They are some of the most basic electromechanical components, but they stand out thanks to their durability and manufacturing quality.

SWITCHES FROM E-SWITCH – A NEW MANUFACTURER
E-Switch is an American brand that specialises in all kinds of switches. Their wide range of products includes basic components like TACT switches, but also high-current switches, DIP-switches, ignition switches, touch buttons, trigger buttons and many other solutions.

DC CONVERTERS – WHAT ARE THEY AND WHAT ARE THEIR FUNCTIONS?
Voltage converters can decrease or increase the output voltage in relation to the input voltage. By alternately turning on and off the voltage with high frequency, they control the value of output voltage without causing any disturbance in the work of the device.

ARDUINO – COMMUNICATION USING THE ETHERNET NETWORK
For many years, the creation of extensive computer networks has ceased to serve only for connecting computers.

Wireless communication in IoT systems using Arduino MKR modules
One of the biggest problems currently facing the Internet of Things (IoT) devices market is its high fragmentation. The multitude of devices and communication protocols makes it very difficult to build a uniform and functional system if you decide to use components from different manufacturers.

VELCRO® PRODUCTS NOW AVAILABLE AT TME
The TME offer has been expanded by products of the world-famous Velcro® brand. Velcro® was founded in 1951 and quickly became a dominant supplier of fastening solutions in a wide variety of industries. The company's offices are located in America, Asia, Europe, and Africa. The first Velcro® factory, opened in Manchester in 1957, is still there.

INFRARED LEDS IN SMD PACKAGES
The TME catalogue includes a wide range of infrared LEDs. The noticeable market trend in favour of the miniaturisation of devices forces manufacturers to search for solutions combining high power (ca. 1W) with a small size of SMD components. For this reason, today we present one of such solutions: PK2S-series IR LEDs, which are the smallest SMD power diodes offered by ProLight.

NKK SWITCHES - QUALITY AND FUNCTIONALITY
Switches are electromechanical components that control the current flow by connecting and disconnecting the electrical circuit. Even the popularity of touch screens has not changed the fact that it is still the leading method of user-device interaction.

Company of the week

Yamaichi Electronics USA Inc.

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Address Book


Yamaichi Electronics USA Inc.


PICMG


Laird Thermal Systems


HARTING


Jenoptik


MACH SYSTEMS s.r.o.


A.P.O. - ELMOS v.o.s.


Pico Technology


Lynred


Advantech


EBV


SECO S.p.A.


Crowd Supply


Digi-Key Electronics


Durakool


KEMET


CODICO


Future Electronics


Foremost Electronics


Littelfuse


Mouser Electronics


RUTRONIK


Infineon Technologies AG


TTI, Inc.


ANRITSU


Power Integrations


AXIOMTEK


TDK Corporation


VISHAY


STMicroelectronics



Calendary
HANNOVER MESSE 2022, 25.4.-29.4. 2022 - “The biggest transfo
DistribuTECH, 7.2.-9.2.2023, San Diego, CA
DistribuTECH, 23.1.-25.1.2024, Indianapolis, IN
DistribuTECH, 11.2.-13.2.2025, Dallas, TX

Interesting video
The ISS Design Challenge ...

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Mouser Electronics Warehouse Tour with Grant Imahara



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